Inquiry Design Model (IDM) Blueprint™
“Boarding Schools”
NDNAEU 2 “Learning & Storytelling”, NDNAEU 7 “Native Identity”
Compelling QuestionHow did boarding schools affect the children and the tribes?
Standards and PracticesND ELA Standards
RL.3 11-12 Analyze how and why multiple characters and textual elements develop and interact over the
course of a text:
a. Analyze how multiple complex characters and literary elements (e.g., symbolism, mood,
setting, etc.) develop over the course of a text, interact with other elements, and advance
the plot or develop the theme.
b. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence.

RL.6 11-12 Determine purpose or point of view by distinguishing what is really meant from what is directly
stated (e.g., in texts that use satire, sarcasm, irony, understatement).

RI.1 11-12 Read closely to comprehend texts of grade-level appropriate complexity:
a. Determine what the text says explicitly and implicitly.
b. Identify and analyze any ambiguities in the text.
c. Provide an objective summary of the text.
d. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence.

RI.3 11-12 Analyze how and why multiple individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the
course of a text:
a. Analyze how multiple individuals, sequences of events, and ideas develop and interact
over the course of a text.
b. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence.

RI.7 11-12 Analyze and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats
(e.g., visuals, videos, tables, charts, and graphs), including written text

RI.9 11-12 Analyze how texts within and/or across time periods treat similar topics, addressing their
themes, purposes, and rhetorical strategies. 
Staging the QuestionAsk students to reflect back on their first days at school. Brainstorm a list of positive and negative events they experienced. 
Supporting Question 1 Supporting Question 2 Supporting Question 3 
What was your first day of school like?How are Demus McDonald’s and Zitkala-Sa’s memories similar? Discuss.How do our early memories affect us?
Formative Performance TaskFormative Performance TaskFormative Performance Task
1. Watch Demus McDonald’s story of
his beginning at boarding school.
2. Create a list of the obstacles Demus
McDonald faced at school which
would make it difficult to succeed.
1.Read the first two sections of
Zitkala-Sa’s description of starting
at a boarding school, “The Land of
Red Apples” and “The Cutting of My
Long Hair.”
2.Create a list of the obstacles
Zitkala-Sa faced at school which
would make it difficult to succeed.
1.Read the article listing the effects of
abuse on children
2.Find examples of the list in the
experiences of Demus McDonald
and Zitkala-Sa.
Featured SourcesFeatured SourcesFeatured Sources
Video interview with Dakota Elder
Demus McDonold “St. Michael
Boarding School”
https://teachingsofourelders.org/stmichaels-boarding-school-demusmcdonald/
Zitkala-Sa “School Days of an Indian
Girl” available online at
http://digital.library.upenn.edu/wom
en/zitkalasa/stories/stories.html#impressions
Article on effects of PTSD on children
who’ve experienced abuse; available
at ND State Library Online Resources:

Demaria, Thomas, and David J.
Schonfeld. “Do It Now: Short-Term
Responses To Traumatic Events.” Phi
Delta Kappan 95.4 (2013): 13.
MasterFILE Premier. Web. 10 Nov.
2016.
SUMMATIVE PERFORMANCE TASK: Supported Claim (written/spoken) or Demonstration of Process (project-based)In a formal writing, explain how the school experiences of those Native
American children would affect their futures.
Compare student knowledge of bullying to Demus McDonald’s and Zitkala-Sa’s
experiences.
SUMMATIVE PERFORMANCE TASK: ExtensionFurther research the history and usage of boarding schools and Native American children for the numbers affected, the reasoning behind them, and the lingering effects.
Taking Informed Action / Real World ApplicationUse the discussion to apply insights to students’ experiences with bullies.
Print Friendly, PDF & Email